dd常用参数

Linux dd命令用于读取、转换并输出数据。

dd可从标准输入或文件中读取数据,根据指定的格式来转换数据,再输出到文件、设备或标准输出。

/dev/null和/dev/zero的区别
/dev/null,外号叫无底洞,你可以向它输出任何数据,它通吃,并且不会撑着!
/dev/zero,是一个输入设备,你可你用它来初始化文件。

磁盘长时间放置: 容易造成磁盘头损坏。

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dd if=/dev/sda  of=/dev/sda

来进行无损修复;

备份sda数据,并利用tar工具打包,保存到指定路径:

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dd if=/dev/sda  | tar -czvf  > ~/sda.tar.gz

创建1G文件

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dd if=/dev/zero of=test bs=1M count=1024



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Usage: dd [OPERAND]...
or: dd OPTION
Copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands.

bs=BYTES read and write up to BYTES bytes at a time
cbs=BYTES convert BYTES bytes at a time
conv=CONVS convert the file as per the comma separated symbol list
count=N copy only N input blocks
ibs=BYTES read up to BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)
if=FILE read from FILE instead of stdin
iflag=FLAGS read as per the comma separated symbol list
obs=BYTES write BYTES bytes at a time (default: 512)
of=FILE write to FILE instead of stdout
oflag=FLAGS write as per the comma separated symbol list
seek=N skip N obs-sized blocks at start of output
skip=N skip N ibs-sized blocks at start of input
status=LEVEL The LEVEL of information to print to stderr;
'none' suppresses everything but error messages,
'noxfer' suppresses the final transfer statistics,
'progress' shows periodic transfer statistics

N and BYTES may be followed by the following multiplicative suffixes:
c =1, w =2, b =512, kB =1000, K =1024, MB =1000*1000, M =1024*1024, xM =M
GB =1000*1000*1000, G =1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

Each CONV symbol may be:

ascii from EBCDIC to ASCII
ebcdic from ASCII to EBCDIC
ibm from ASCII to alternate EBCDIC
block pad newline-terminated records with spaces to cbs-size
unblock replace trailing spaces in cbs-size records with newline
lcase change upper case to lower case
ucase change lower case to upper case
sparse try to seek rather than write the output for NUL input blocks
swab swap every pair of input bytes
sync pad every input block with NULs to ibs-size; when used
with block or unblock, pad with spaces rather than NULs
excl fail if the output file already exists
nocreat do not create the output file
notrunc do not truncate the output file
noerror continue after read errors
fdatasync physically write output file data before finishing
fsync likewise, but also write metadata

Each FLAG symbol may be:

append append mode (makes sense only for output; conv=notrunc suggested)
direct use direct I/O for data
directory fail unless a directory
dsync use synchronized I/O for data
sync likewise, but also for metadata
fullblock accumulate full blocks of input (iflag only)
nonblock use non-blocking I/O
noatime do not update access time
nocache discard cached data
noctty do not assign controlling terminal from file
nofollow do not follow symlinks
count_bytes treat 'count=N' as a byte count (iflag only)
skip_bytes treat 'skip=N' as a byte count (iflag only)
seek_bytes treat 'seek=N' as a byte count (oflag only)

Sending a USR1 signal to a running 'dd' process makes it
print I/O statistics to standard error and then resume copying.

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null& pid=$!
$ kill -USR1 $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid
18335302+0 records in
18335302+0 records out
9387674624 bytes (9.4 GB) copied, 34.6279 seconds, 271 MB/s
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